Monday, October 02, 2006

Old State House Museum: Arkansas News - NA Research

Old State House Museum - Arkansas State History

Old State House Museum: Arkansas NewsOld State House Museum
Arkansas State History

History of Newspapers in Arkansas
Drop Down Menu - Spring 1984/Fall 1998

Arkansas in the New Century, 1900-1930

Civil War Arkansas

School Days in Arkansas

Arkansas Becomes a State, 1830-1850

Music in Arkansas

How and Where We Lived

Crime and Punishment in Arkansas

Native Americans in Arkansas

The Wilderness Experience

Leadership in Arkansas

The Old State House in History

Ethnicity & Culture


Black Arkansans

Women in Arkansas





Events of the Early Statehood Period, 1836-1860


Events of the Civil War and Reconstruction

Arkansans at War

Disasters in Arkansas

Arkansans at Work

Arkansas at Play

Transportation in Arkansas

Rivers of Arkansa

First Issue


- Angel

New Georgia Encyclopedia Links – NA Research

New Georgia Encyclopedia

New Georgia Encyclopedia: English Trade in Deerskins and Indian Slaves By Robbie Ethridge, University of Mississippi, Oxford[Forces for Change / How Indian Slave Trade Worked / Slaving in Georgia / Formation of Coalescent Societies]

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Spanish Missions Spanish
Chapter of Georgia's earliest colonial history dominated by mission era, extending from 1568-1684. Catholic missions were primary means by which Georgia's indigenous Native American chiefdoms were assimilated into Spanish colonial system along northern frontier of greater Spanish Florida.

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Indian Warfare
Significant warfare first began to develop among Georgia Indians in Mississippian Period (A.D. 800-1600), time when relatively large societies called chiefdoms evolved throughout southeastern North America. During this period defensive fortifications were first built around some towns. These included log palisades that completely encircled large towns such as Etowah Mounds in north Georgia.

New Georgia Encyclopedia: New Georgia Encyclopedia: Indian Missionshistory of Georgia's Indian missions - 1735-1838

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Joseph Vann (1798-1844)
Born on February 11, 1798, in northwest Georgia, Vann was son of Chief James Vann and Margaret "Peggy" Scott. His grandfather was Clement Vann, a Scottish trader who moved from Charleston, South Carolina, to Cherokee lands in northwest Georgia and married Wa-wli, a Cherokee Indian. Wa-wli was baptized by Moravian missionaries, and they changed her name to Mary Christiana.

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Chief Vann House
Built between 1804-1806 by Cherokee leader James Vann, is called "Showplace of Cherokee Nation."

New Georgia Encyclopedia: John Ross (1790-1866)Principal chief of Cherokee Nation in 1827, following establishment of government modeled on U.S. Born October 3, 1790, in Turkey Town, on Coosa River near present-day Center, Alabama. His family moved to base of Lookout Mountain, area became Rossville, Georgia. After attending South West Point Academy in Tennessee, Ross married Quatie (also known as Elizabeth Brown Henley).

New Georgia Encyclopedia: John Rollin Ridge (1827-1867)Also known as Cheesquatalawny and Yellow Bird), considered first Native American novelist, Born near New Echota (near the present city of Rome) on March 19, 1827. His grandfather Major Ridge, his father, John Ridge, and his uncles Elias Boudinot (Buck Watie) and Stand Watie

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Major RidgeRidge was born in early 1770s in Tennessee. His Cherokee name, Kah-nung-da-tla-geh, means "the man who walks on the mountaintop." Englishmen called him "The Ridge."

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Chieftains Museum/Major Ridge HomeMission of Chieftains Museum/Major Ridge Home in Rome is "to preserve and interpret the heritage Chieftains Museum represented by Chieftains house and campus." National Historic Landmark was home of prominent early-nineteenth-century Cherokee leader Major Ridge and family. "its heritage most significantly encompasses history/traditions of Cherokee Indians and clash of cultures in S.E. U.S. that culminated in tragedy known as 'Trail of Tears.'"

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Sequoyah (ca. 1770-ca. 1840)
Sequoyah, or Sequoia (both spellings were given by missionaries, but Cherokee name closer to Sikwayi or Sogwali), also called George Gist or George Guess, was legendary creator of Cherokee syllabary. Born in village in mountains of Tennessee, he resettled in Arkansas when tribal land along Little Tennessee River was ceded to whites in 1790s.

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Elias Boudinot (ca. 1804-1839)
Elias Boudinot born in Oothcaloga, in northwest Georgia, about 1804. He was called Gallegina, or the Buck, and was eldest of nine children. His father, Oo-watie, a Cherokee. Elias formally educated became editor of Cherokee Phoenix, first Native American newspaper in U.S.

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Cherokee Phoenix
First Native American newspaper in U.S., first printed 1828 in New Echota, Georgia, capital of the Cherokee Nation.

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Cherokee RemovalIn 1838-39, Cherokee Trail of Tears, U.S. troops, prompted by state of Georgia, expelled Cherokee Indians from their ancestral homeland in Southeast and removed them to Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
Court case Worcester v. Georgia, the U.S. Supreme Court held in 1832 that Cherokee Indians constituted a nation holding distinct sovereign powers. The decision became foundation of the principle of tribal sovereignty in twentieth century, it did not protect Cherokees from being removed from their ancestral homeland in Southeast.

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Creek Indians

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Creek Indian Leaders

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Malatchi (ca. 1720-1756)
Chief and warrior of town of Coweta of the Lower Creek Indians during 1740s and 1750s. He was probably second son of Brims. Malatchi supported land claims of his relative (possibly his cousin) Mary Musgrove in her attempts to acquire Yamacraw tract along Savannah River and islands of St. Catherines, Sapelo, and Ossabaw.

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Brims (d. 1733)
Date of birth and place of his birth and death remain unknown. Brims operated in Georgia during early eighteenth century. He filled positions of mico (ruler) and warrior fortown of Coweta, and his multiple skills gained him title emperor. He began a powerful lineage, including Chigelli (brother), Malatchi (son), and Togulki (grandson), all of whom upheld his political strategy, and he was probably uncle to Mary Musgrove, although her exact claims of kinship are unclear.

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Mary Musgrove (ca. 1700-ca. 1763)Known as Coosaponakeesa among Creek Indians, Mary Musgrove served as cultural liaison between colonial Georgia and her Native American community in mid-eighteenth century.

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Land Lottery SystemBetween 1805 and 1833, state of Georgia conducted eight land lotteries (one each in 1805, 1807, 1820, 1821, 1827, and 1833 and two in 1832) in which public lands in interior of state were dispersed to small yeoman farmers based on system of eligibility and chance.

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Westo Indians

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Yamacraw Indians

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Tomochichi (ca. 1644-1739)
Chief of the Yamacraw Indians

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Late Prehistoric/Early Historic Chiefdoms
(ca. A.D. 1300-1850) Nature of Chiefdoms / Chiefdom of Coosa /Other Chiefdoms/ End of Chiefdoms

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Indian Trails

New Georgia Encyclopedia: Languages of Georgia
IndiansMuskogean / Iroquoian / Language Isolates



Friday, September 29, 2006

Research Native American Indians At Digital History

Digital History

Digital History: Native American VoicesOverview of Native American History[Prehistoric Patterns of Change / Cultures of Prehistoric America / Eve of Contact / Kinship and Religion / European Perceptions / Clash of Cultures / English Encounters / Native Americans and European Contests for Empire / Cultural Survival Strategies / Clearing the Land of Indians / "Five Civilized Tribes" and Civil War / Tragedy of Western Indians / Resistance on Great Plains / Wounded Knee / "Kill the Indian and Save the Man" / Native Americans at Turn of Century / Revitalization and Renewal / Indian Power ]

Digital History: Glossary of Native American History

Digital History: Encyclopedia of American History

Digital History: Historic Maps
Historic Maps (by year) / Maps as Teaching Tools / Maps by Topic / U.S. Maps / Maps by State. Territory, Region, and City

Digital History: American Historical Images
Advertisements / African Americans (also see Slavery) / Architecture / Art / Books and Pamphlet / Images Canada / Civil War / Daguerreo types / Ethnicity / Federal Government Images / Holocaust / Maps / Medicine / Music / Paintings / Photography / New Deal / Political History / Portraits / Radicalism / Science and Technology / Slavery / Southwest / States /Trials and Court Cases / WW I - WW II


"To combat the white-Indian warfare on the Plains, Congress created a special peace commission. The commission deplored public ignorance and apathy toward the Indian problem and denounced settlers and railroad companies for failing to recognize the Indians' humanity." (Indian Peace Commission - 1868)

The Indian Peace Commission
Digital History: Native American VoicesNew Directions in Government Policy

Related Link:

1868 Indian Peace Commission To President
Transcribed by Carolyn Sims, Furman University Department of History, from the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the Year 1868 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1868), 26-50.


- Angel

Tuesday, September 26, 2006

NA Research - Contra Costa County, California

Artifacts May Derail Building Of College By Matt Krupnick

"The discovery of millennia-old California Indian remains could derail plans for a community college campus in Brentwood."

The Contra Costa Community College District is researching its options for the new Los Medanos College branch after state archaeologists found ancient human remains on land that was planned as the main access road to the 30-acre campus. The bodies, found two months ago, could be as old as 7,000 years, officials said."

"There's no way we can offer that easement," said Craig Mattson, a superintendent with the California Department of Parks and Recreation. "This is a very significant site."
The the latest Brentwood project near Marsh Creek to be affected by native village and burial sites.

Crews have removed the remains of at least 500 people...from the new Vineyards subdivision. That housing development is across Marsh Creek Road from the college site.

Remains and artifacts also have slowed plans for a proposed state park on the former Cowell Ranch near the historic John Marsh House and could affect part of the Highway 4 bypass.

The oldest remains are believed to belong to a tribe known as the Windmillers, archaeologists said. Newer bones found closer to the surface indicate that people settled along Marsh Creek for thousands of years."


Artifacts may derail building of collegeBy Matt Krupnick
(Contra Costa Times - Walnut Creek, Sep. 26, 2006)

Burial site imperils proposed collegeBy Matt Krupnick
(Contra Costa Times - Walnut Creek, CA, Sept 25,2006)

Web Sites at RootsWeb - Contra Costa CA

Contra Costa County, California (Wikipedia)
County seat is Martinez.

Martinez, California (Wikipedia)
County seat of Contra Costa County, California

Brentwood, California (Wikipedia)
Brentwood is a city in Contra Costa County, California

Native Californians
(East Contra Costa Historical Society and Museum)

Contra Costa County Historical Society

Indian Slavery In Contra Costa County
By The Honorable A. F. BrayContra Costa County, California Broadcast StationKLX, Oakland, California, Broadcast on February 22, 1938
(Contra Costa County Historical Society)

Contra Costa County History: Chapter 1: The Indians
Source: The History of Contra Costa County, California - published by The Elms Publishing Co., Inc., Berkeley, California, 1917 - Transcribed By Sally Kaleta[When the white man came upon the scene there were four tribes of Indians in Contra Costa County. These were the Juchiyunes, Acalanes, Bolgones, and Carquinez Indians.]
(CaliforniaGenealogy & History Archives)

Contra Costa County HistoryA Memorial and Biographical History of Northern California- Chicago, Lewis Publ. Co., 1891
(CaliforniaGenealogy & History Archives)

County Histories: Northern California/Sacramento Valley/Foothill CountiesNorthern California - Source: A Memorial and Biographical History of Northern California - Chicago, Lewis Publ. Co., 1891 /Sacramento Valley and Foothill Counties, California includes Amador, Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Glenn, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, Shasta, Solano, Sutter, Trinity, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties.
(CaliforniaGenealogy & History Archives)

California Genealogy & History Archives

California Tribal Map (

The Bay Miwok project Of Contra Costa County
The Indians of East and Central Contra Costa County were the Miwok. Miwok means people. Since the Miwok area covers the territory from here to Yosemite, they were called the Bay Miwok, meaning people of the bay. Five tribelets of Bay Miwok have been indentified. They are the Saclan, Chupcan, Volvon, Julpun, and Tatcan tribelets. The name of each tribelet came from the location of their village site.

Pioneer John Marsh [Brentwood, Contra Costa County, California]

Legacy left unwritten By Denis Cuff ContraCostaTimes

"John Marsh...had survived Indian wars, capture by Comanches and wilderness explorations with mountain men before becoming the first U.S. citizen to settle in Contra Costa County, then a largely untamed part of Mexico."

"Was Marsh a greedy recluse who deserved the label as the meanest man inCalifornia? Or was Marsh a far-sighted, brave trailblazer whose ability to flourish on dangerous frontiers made him an invaluable character in the taming of California and the West?

"Marsh had come west in stages after leaving New England...Marsh was one of the greatest of our early adventurers," wrote George Lyman in a 1931 biography. "He was a pioneer on six frontiers."

"After graduating from Harvard, Marsh worked as school master, Indian agent, trapper, justice of the peace and fur trader in what is now Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois and Missouri. He and his first wife created the first dictionary of the Lakota Sioux language"

[Kathleen Mero, Concord historian, active in John Marsh Historic Trust] "said her research shows...Marsh often traveled days to care for sick and injured patients...He chaired a county grand jury that castigated the public for treatment of American Indians...Marsh had his flaws," Mero said, "but he was important to the settlement of the West."

For more information, visit


Legacy left unwritten By Denis Cuff
(Contra Costa Times - Walnut Creek, CA, Sep. 24, 2006

“Doctor” John Marsh was born in 1799 in South Danvers, Massachusetts and died in Pacheco, Contra Costa County, California in 1856. He was an early pioneer and settler in California, and is often regarded as the first physician in California. Marsh became an Indian Agent for the Sioux Agency, and took a French/Indian mistress who bore him a son named Charles.

"He lived in Prairie du Chien where he got involved in the Black Hawk War between the Sioux and their rivals, the Fox and Sauk, and was blamed for a massacre of the Fox and Sauk by the Sioux. As a result he was forced to flee from Prairie Du Chien to New Salem, Illinois, taking his mistress and small child with him. Leaving them he returned to Prairie du Chien. His mistress, pregnant again and abandoned by her lover tried to walk for several hundred miles to rejoin him. The journey exhausted her and she and the child died in childbirth.

Marsh then gave his small son to a Painter family in New Salem to be raised, and once again became involved in Indian affairs. He was discovered selling guns illegally to some of the Indians and had to flee the territory, this time settling in Independence, Missouri, where he became a merchant. He visited his son once more, then his business failed and he emigrated to Southern California via the Santa Fe Trail."

"Shortly before his death, according to legend, a young man approached his door seeking shelter from a harsh storm. It was his son Charles, who had journeyed to California in search of his father. They enjoyed a happy, although short-lived reunion.


John Marsh (1799-1856) (Pioneer) (Wikipedia)


- Angel

Monday, September 25, 2006

Catawba Native American Indian Research

Catawba Indians: "People of The River"
(Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History


Catawba (Tribe)(Wikipedia)
Also known as Issa or Esaw) are a tribe of Native Americans, once considered one of the most powerful eastern Siouan tribes, traditionally lived in Southeast United States, along the border between North and South Carolina.

Finding Cherokee and Catawba Indian Ancestors
(Gaston-Lincoln Regional Library System)

Catawba Indian Tribe History (Access Genealogy)

Native Americans of South Carolina: Catawba Exodus
By Steven Pony Hill
[exodus from Catawba Reservation - around 1825](SCGenWeb)

Native Americans of South Carolina: Catawba Records
By Steven Pony Hill
[original members of our community here in nw FLA in 1830]

Catawba on the Roanoke By Crystal,Sat, 7 Jan 2006 Letter from Robert Carter to Sir Richard Everard ,[August 19,] 1727 -1- [Williamsburg, Virginia 1727 ]

Catawba Native American History 1: South Carolina (USGenWeb)
[Extracted from: "A History of the Upper Country of South Carolina, Vol. II"
By John H. Logan. orig. Pub. 1910, and p14-17: Joseph Habersham. -
Historical Collections.]

Catawba Native American History 2: South Carolina (USGenWeb)
[The Indian Tribes of North America"
By John R. Swanton, Pub. 1920
List Native Americans, History; Place Names; Sub-divisions; in South Carolina

Catawba Native American History 3: South Carolina (USGenWeb)
[Catawba Native Americans: Extracted from: 'Myths of the Cherokees'
By James Mooney (1861-1921)
Published by Governmental Printing Office Washington, DC. in 1900; pp 380-81]

Catawba Indians Who Fought for Confederacy Speech By Ben Harris (USGenWeb)
Catawba Indians Will Be Remembered Monument to
Those Who Fought for the Confederacy
Dedicated at Fort Mill Fifty Indians From Reservation Present,
Speech by Ben Harris, Monument Town -
Columbia State, Columbia, S.C., August 1, 1900, page 2, columns 1 & 2.

1847 2nd Census Catawba Indians (USGenWeb)

1854, 91 Catawbas in NC and SC (84 in SC) (USGenWeb)

1880 1st Census for Catawba Twp., York Co., SC. (USGenWeb)

1900 Census of South Carolina, York CO, Indian Reservation (USGenWeb)

1930 Catwaba Reservation Census (RootsWeb)


- Angel

Saturday, September 23, 2006

The Good Father By Keith Laufenberg

"On June 19, 1868, the peace commission, headed by Father Pierre DeSmet, and including around a hundred Yanktonai and Lakota tribesmen, including many war Chiefs, rode into Sitting Bull’s Hunkpapa Sioux village. Charles and Matilda Galpin rode with them, having been recruited as interpreters.

Charles Galpin was a trader who had married the daughter of a Hunkpapa-Two Kettle union, Eagle Woman, and her credit­worthiness tended to elevate the peace commission to a much higher level of trustworthiness among the Sioux."

The Good Father By Keith Laufenberg
(Part 1) (Part 2) (Conclusion)
(historialreferences - Oracular Tree)

- Angel

Friday, September 22, 2006

Puerto Ricans at Carlisle Indian School By Sonia M. Rosa

"the story of the sixty-plus Puerto Rican children who went to the Carlisle Industrial Indian School in the early 1900s from its broad human perspective—she focuses on the plight of the transplanted children, systematically exploring the individual stories of the students involved, instead of entering into the controversy that has been raised over the "Indians from Puerto Rico" who were sent to the school

Rosa answers the question of whether or not the Puerto Rican children at the Carlisle Industrial Indian School were Indian or not with the simple observation that, "They were treated as Indians, as inferiors."

The Puerto Ricans at Carlisle Indian School By Sonia M. Rosa
(KACIKE: Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology)

- Angel

129 years after Little Big Horn By John Christian Hopkins

"Charles Windolph died 56 years ago today, on March 11, 1950. He was a decorated soldier, winning both the Congressional Medal of Honor and a Purple Heart. But, his battlefield exploits did not occur in World II, World War I or even the Spanish-American War. Windolph, 98, was the last cavalry survivor from the Battle of the Little Bighorn. The last survivor, an Indian named Dewey Beard, would die in 1955. The debacle, on a grassy hilltop in Montana, has captured the imagination for generations."

129 years after Little Big Horn By John Christian Hopkins
(Diné Bureau, !ndependent gallup, NM, March 11, 2006)

- Angel